Second Submission

Below is my second submission after changing the research thesis to be a survival of the printed poster in the 21st century in relation to the development of the digital screen. In this paper is the new and improved research questions. These were to be later changed/ adapted once more before my final submission but still relate to the same thing.

The Survival Of Poster Print

1 Introduction

Before the introduction of digital billboards and displays in the current mid noughties to date (Joe Melle, 2010), design was more then just a finished article. Computer generated design as well as hand printed articles each that had a tangible physicality to them, that can be held and appreciated hold a sense of pride and a sense of achievement to them. They would serve as an example of the artist that had composed the piece. Techniques and style types would represent who they were, what they stand for and how they work. Each and every print would be unique. Hand made prints would never be perfect or the same.

Recent studies of 2011 appropriated by media research group MagnaGlobal (Billboard boom, 2011) show that spending on out-of-home advertising will expand by 8.3% in 2011 to about $26.4 billion dollars, faster growth than that seen for other non-internet forms of advertising. Out-of-home advertising is any public endorsed advert including billboards, posters and such other adverts found in public areas. With the increase of percentages stated, now three years out of date, they can only have rises as the years past therefore causing a further crash in poster print.

 

 Research Questions

 

  1. Will poster print rise above it’s competitors in the digital era we now live in or will it fail to thrive and collapse under the pressure of its extension?
  1. Technology is thriving and becoming more of everyday life. Will technology poison the minds of the next generation of young designers and steer them away from traditional poster print methods?
  1. What are the posing factors that print will thrive and survive and/or fall to the hands of technology?

3 The world of printmaking

This chapter discusses the different types of poster printmaking techniques. With a very brief insight into their history. How techniques are used, what they do for a print and why there is a range of different print techniques. Print is something that is very tactile something that belongs and means something. It’s a final product, a success and very individual. The story of poster print techniques goes back generations to the earliest examples being woodblock printing founded by the Chinese in 868 A.D. (Woodblock, 2014)

Using such books as ‘A short history of the printed world by Warren Chappell (Chappell.W, 1970) to delve into an in-depth research and understand the history of print further more then is already known. This understanding of print moves research onto poster print techniques understanding the methods, hard work and soul that go into completing a print by hand from scratch. From choosing colours, to building frames, stencils and sourcing equipment involved with some historic methods of print that still adopt similar techniques from hundreds of years ago.

Print techniques such as silk- screen, block printing and letterpress are well known and understood poster print methods therefore are examined to further more the studies understanding of poster print. This will help to understand the positive elements and negative issues tactile paper prints can cause or have and to what may cause their downfall up against the digital billboard.

Chappell, WC, 1970. A Short History of the Printed Word. 1st ed. U.S: Hippocrene Books Inc., U.S.

 

Eye Magazine | Review | Handmade graphics refuse to go quietly. 2014. Eye Magazine | Review | Handmade graphics refuse to go quietly. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.eyemagazine.com/review/article/handmade-graphics-refuse-to-go-quietly. [Accessed 04 October 2014].

 

The Printing Process: Block Printing. 2014. The Printing Process: Block Printing. [ONLINE] Available at: http://ohsobeautifulpaper.com/2012/01/the-printing-process-block-printing/. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

What Is Screen Printing? 2014. What Is Screen Printing? [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.whatisscreenprinting.com. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

What is Letterpress? – The Happy Dragons’ Press. 2014. What is Letterpress? – The Happy Dragons’ Press. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.happydragonspress.co.uk/hand_printed.shtml. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

WHAT IS LETTERPRESS? – The Fingersmith Letterpress. 2014. WHAT IS LETTERPRESS? – The Fingersmith Letterpress. [ONLINE] Available at: http://thefingersmithletterpress.com/?page_id=136. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

4 Poster Print

In the generation we live in money is key. And to generate money we need sales. Sales of product. To promote product we use adverts. Adverts can be many things but the main being posters. This chapter discusses a history of poster design and print from its origins in the late 1790’s introduced by Jules Chéret, to Art Nouveau, through both world wars and on to post modernism. A huge range of beautiful, inspirational, controversial and some bad poster prints have been produced over such a long period of time and a huge development of styles and techniques can be seen. With an understanding of poster print, its history and its movements this helps to present its legacy. A legacy that should not be shut down by the digital era.

International poster gallery. A Brief History of the Poster. Available: http://www.internationalposter.com/about-poster-art/a-brief-history-of.aspx. Last accessed 30 September 2014.

 

Posters: World War I Posters – Background and Scope – Prints & Photographs Online Catalog (Library of Congress). 2014. Posters: World War I Posters – Background and Scope – Prints & Photographs Online Catalog (Library of Congress). [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/wwipos/background.html. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

Art Nouveau Movement, Artists and Major Works | The Art Story. 2014. Art Nouveau Movement, Artists and Major Works | The Art Story. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.theartstory.org/movement-art-nouveau.htm. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

How posters survive and thrive in a digital age | Design | Agenda | Phaidon. 2014. How posters survive and thrive in a digital age | Design | Agenda | Phaidon. [ONLINE] Available at: http://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/design/articles/2013/july/15/how-posters-survive-and-thrive-in-a-digital-age/. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

5 Technical boom

With the development of technology physical tangible poster prints are slowly dying out. Billboards are now electronic, shops use televisions and projectors as well as interactive screens in store, leaflets and flyers are now emails and pop up ads online. (Billboard boom, 2011) How long will it be before print completely looses all fight and the technical word takes over? The issues lye in that this will change how design is used, looked upon and processed. The interactive screens are great for customer experience and interaction; electronic billboards will save money on printing costs. But there are drawbacks. The billboards will now cost money to power and cause a greater global footprint then printing would. But most of all, all aspects of handcrafted design will be completely obliterated. The new designers of the world won’t have an understanding of tactile design, of how their elders worked or used their creative talents. Will all creative flow be lost? Will they all become square eyed? An insight into the development and future of the digital space that will soon adopt and replace every billboard or poster space there is. Will help to develop an understanding of the active and positive role electronic advertising will have. As well as any negative issues that may be caused from this development. (Joe Melle, 2010).

History of Billboard Advertising | Billboard Advertising. 2014. History of Billboard Advertising | Billboard Advertising. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.capitoloutdoor.com/outdoor-advertising-services/billboard-advertising/history-billboard-advertising. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

A Brief History of Digital Signage. 2014. A Brief History of Digital Signage. [ONLINE] Available at: http://ezinearticles.com/?A-Brief-History-of-Digital-Signage&id=494826. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

Digital Billboards – The future of advertising? | Joe Melle, 2010. underthehood.us. 2014. Digital Billboards – The future of advertising? | underthehood.us. [ONLINE] Available at: http://underthehood.us/2010/11/03/digital-billboards-the-future-of-advertising/. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 6 Print Artists

This chapter explores few of the many great and recognized print artists the world has seen. It explores the works and differences between each artist’s techniques and movements’ but no matter how different they may be they all come back to the heart of the topic- print. We see work from the likes of David Carson, Andy Warhol – (pop art 1900’s) through to street art and Shepard Fairey’s OBAY GIANT propaganda prints. Each and all have a love for print, for the ideology of physically creating something and hanging it to be seen. Something that can be touched, removed, moved and is appreciated physically.

David Carson: Design and discovery | Talk Video | TED.com. 2014. David Carson: Design and discovery | Talk Video | TED.com. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ted.com/talks/david_carson_on_design#t-338885. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

Blackwell, Lewis. The end of print: the graphic design of David Carson. Laurence King, 1995.

 

  1. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/andy-warhol-9523875#synopsis. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

Shepard Fairey – Page – Interview Magazine. 2014. Shepard Fairey – Page – Interview Magazine. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.interviewmagazine.com/art/shepard-fairey/. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 7 Design Studies

This chapter is simple. It shows the results of recent studies taken out on student designers and their thoughts on the technical boom. How they feel about print fading out. And weather they know themselves about the print processes there are or has the deflation of print already started. Is it a lost cause? Or is there hope yet.

Using questionnaires given to young designers as well as the general public to get a broad understanding of their thoughts on print and the digital applications being introduced to display artworks. Interviews with such artists as Vaughn Oliver a profound graphic designer that likes the use of print very much. We will hear his thoughts and feelings on the increase of technology and fall in print.

 

 

 

 8 Print & Technology – Pros & Cons

A chapter that simply does what it says on the tin. Or in this case its title. An argument for and against poster print. Exploring the good, the techniques and costs of printing. As well as it’s somewhat of a downfall and why it’s not the preferred way of producing posters in this day and age.

With the huge increase in technology since the 1990’s (Kmahesh, 2011) (Joe Melle, 2010) the future of technology is inevitable and bright. With phones, and tablets being used for almost everything from turning of your light switches at home to becoming a computer on the go, it’s unstoppable. Advertising is now becoming very much electronic. From simple electronic billboards to customer experience interactive screens. And it will continue to do so.

­­

History of Photoshop: Journey from Photoshop 1.0 to Photoshop CS5 | Creativeoverflow. Kmahesh, 2011. History of Photoshop: Journey from Photoshop 1.0 to Photoshop CS5 | Creativeoverflow. [ONLINE] Available at: http://creativeoverflow.net/history-of-photoshop-journey-from-photoshop-1-0-to-photoshop-cs5/. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

Digital Billboards – The future of advertising? | Joe Melle, 2010. underthehood.us. 2014. Digital Billboards – The future of advertising? | underthehood.us. [ONLINE] Available at: http://underthehood.us/2010/11/03/digital-billboards-the-future-of-advertising/. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

 

#printoctober – twitter hashtag.

 Bibliography

Last fm. Video Killed the Radio Star. Available: http://www.last.fm/music/The+Buggles/_/Video+Killed+the+Radio+Star. Last accessed 30 September 2014.

Gemma Aldridge. (2013). Girl aged four is Britain’s youngest-known iPad addict. Available: http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/girl-aged-four-britains-youngest-known-1844779. Last accessed 30 September 2014.

Woodblock. History. Available: http://woodblock.com/encyclopedia/entries/011_04/history.html. Last accessed 30 September 2014 September 2014.

International poster gallery. A Brief History of the Poster. Available: http://www.internationalposter.com/about-poster-art/a-brief-history-of.aspx. Last accessed 30 September 2014.

The print edition. (2011). Billboard boom. Available: http://www.economist.com/node/18587305. Last accessed 30 September 2014.

Electronic Billboard Pros, Cons and Safety Information. 2014. Electronic Billboard Pros, Cons and Safety Information. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.wirespring.com/dynamic_digital_signage_and_interactive_kiosks_journal/articles/Electronic_Billboard_Pros__Cons_and_Safety_Information-183.html. [Accessed 04 October 2014].

Digital Billboards – The future of advertising? | Joe Melle 2010. underthehood.us. 2014. Digital Billboards – The future of advertising? | underthehood.us. [ONLINE] Available at: http://underthehood.us/2010/11/03/digital-billboards-the-future-of-advertising/. [Accessed 04 October 2014].

Chappell, WC, 1970. A Short History of the Printed Word. 1st ed. U.S.: Hippocrene Books Inc.,U.S..

Digital Design for Print and Web: An Introduction to Theory, Principles, and … – John DiMarco – Google Books. 2014. Digital Design for Print and Web: An Introduction to Theory, Principles, and … – John DiMarco – Google Books. [ONLINE] Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=doOoc3cKyB8C&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=design+for+print&ots=bQUowvNSk6&sig=yHIZvjBF2ISrMctpdk-f9Di8vY4#v=onepage&q=design%20for%20print&f=false. [Accessed 05 October 2014].

DiMarco, JD, 2010. Digital Design for Print and Web. 1st ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

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